From tapes to emails, here are the ways federal officials from Donald Trump to Richard Nixon to Hillary Clinton have been accused of mishandling government records.

Hillary Clinton;  donald trump;  richard nixon

Hillary Clinton; donald trump; richard nixonMatt Rourke/Associated Press; Julia Nikhinson/Associated Press; Associated Press

  • The Mar-a-Lago raid was part of an investigation into Trump’s handling of government records.

  • Federal officials seized 11 boxes of classified information, though Trump has denied any wrongdoing.

  • Hillary Clinton and Richard Nixon are among the officials who have also been accused of mishandling records.

Federal agents conducted an unprecedented raid on former President Donald Trump’s Mar-a-Lago residence on Monday, but the potential issues being investigated are not new territory for the Justice Department.

The agency investigates whether Trump broke three federal laws related to the handling of national security information. One of the potential violations falls under the Espionage Act and concerns the suppression of information related to national defense. The others involve hiding or destroying government records.

The FBI seized 11 sets of classified or top secret documents of Mar-a-Lago, according to court documents unsealed Friday. Trump has denied any wrongdoing.

It is relatively rare, but not unheard of, for the Justice Department investigate and even press charges against federal officials accused of mishandling government records, including some who are considered classified or top secret.

From former President Richard Nixon to former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, here are a few examples that include documents, emails, and audio tapes.

president richard nixon

Nixon is partly responsible for the creation of the Presidential Records Act, a law passed in 1978 that mandates the preservation of records created or received by the president and vice president during their time in office. He also established that presidential records belong to the US and must be maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration at the end of the president’s term.

The law was part of a series of measures passed to address potential corruption after Watergate, when Nixon attempted to destroy millions of pages of documents and hundreds of hours of tape recordings of his time in the White House.

After Nixon’s resignation, Congress passed a law in 1974 that would require him to hand over the documents. Nixon challenged it, but the Supreme Court ultimately ruled that the legislative body had the right to request them.

The Presidential Records Act was passed four years later, solidifying presidential records as public, rather than private, documents.

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton

The Clinton emails are perhaps the best-known example of a federal official accused of mishandling government documents. While serving as President Barack Obama’s secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, Clinton used a personal email address and server to conduct official business, rather than a more secure government email server.

After The New York Times First reported in 2015 about her use of private email and possible violation of federal requirements, it became one of the top stories of the 2016 election cycle, when Clinton was the Democratic presidential nominee against Trump.

A State Department Inspector General Report released in May 2016 found that she had violated government policy, but that it did not constitute criminal conduct. In July 2016, FBI Director James Comey it said its separate investigation found there was “evidence of possible” criminal violations related to handling classified information, but that there was not sufficient reason to press charges.

Other State Department investigation that lasted three years and ended in 2019 found that Clinton’s use of a private email server put classified information at risk, but that there was “no persuasive evidence of deliberate, systemic mishandling of classified information.” No charges were ever filed against her.

Clinton’s email server was found to contain over 100 emails with classified information, 22 tagged top secretand more 2,000 who were designated classified at a later date.

Sandy Berger, National Security Advisor to President Bill Clinton

Sandy Bergerwho served as President Bill Clinton’s national security adviser from 1997 to 2001, pleaded guilty in 2005 to the unauthorized removal and destruction of classified documents from the National Archives.

After leaving his White House post, Berger testified before the Congressional 9/11 commission, which was examining the government’s response to the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Berger said he made multiple visits to the National Archives. to review relevant materials.

But a National Archives employee said he saw Berger leave with documents wrapped around your socks and under your pant leg, prompting a criminal investigation by the Department of Justice. Berger was found to have smuggled out highly classified documents, destroyed some, and lied about possessing it.

He agreed to plead guilty and was fined $50,000, sentenced to two years probation and 100 hours of community service, and stripped of his security clearance for three years.

Low-profile federal officials are more commonly charged

In addition to former presidents and top White House officials, low-profile federal agents are most commonly accused of mishandling government documents.

The FBI and the Department of Justice have conducted at least 11 investigations into these types of crimes since 2005, voice of america informed.

The outlet compiled a list of notable cases that included former members of the military and Department of Defense employees or contractors; NSA and CIA contractors; and former employees of the CIA, FBI and NSA. The sentences included thousands of dollars in fines and several years of probation.

Read the original article at Business Insider

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